Thirty-nine: the number of states whose prior math standards were "clearly inferior" to Common Core math standards.

*Source: Thomas B. Fordham Institute, The State of State Standards—and the Common Core—in 2010*

Latino and African American high school graduates are half as likely as white graduates to have completed rigorous curriculum. They are about one fourth as likely as Asian students to have done so.

Completed Rigorous curriculum:

African American: 6 percent

Latino: 8 percent

White: 14 percent

Asian: 29 percent

*Source: U.S. Department of Education 2009 High School Transcript Study. *

In the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), 15-year-old students in 22 developed countries scored significantly higher in Math Literacy than 15-year-old students in the United States. Students in only five developed countries scored significantly lower. Scores ranged from 613 in Shanghai-China to 368 in Peru. The average scale score in the U.S. was 481.

*Source: 2012 Programme for International Student Assessment, OECD.*

A study of 13 districts and nine states found that 8th-grade math classes in districts with 70% or more low-income students were taught a math curriculum at least 1/2 grade level behind districts with almost no low-income students.

*Source: Source: William H. Schmidt, Leland S. Cogan, Richard T. Houang, Curtis C. McKnight , “Content Coverage Differences across Districts/States: A Persisting Challenge for U.S. Education Policy.” American Journal of Education, Vol. 117, No. 3 (May 2011), pp. 399-427*

As measured by their ACT scores, less than half of American students are ready for college-level math when they graduate high school. The ACT sets the bar for college-ready in math at a score of 22. However, the average score is 20.9. Only 45 percent of test-takers are ready.

*Source: ACT, 2013.*